In 2014, Kazakhstan experienced two external shocks that impacted economic growth, revenue performance, and the government’s ability to reduce the effects through countercyclical expenditures. The first comprised spillover effects from the economic slowdown and uncertain situation of the Russian Federation, which triggered a downward adjustment in the tenge exchange rate.
In 2006, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a 10-year, $800 million multitranche financing facility (MFF) to support an investment program that aimed to assist Pakistan in overcoming the capacity constraints in its power transmission system.
Kazakhstan, located at the center of transport flows between Asia and Europe, provides strategic arteries for emerging transcontinental routes. It has a great transit potential, as few land transport routes can avoid the country when going north to south or east to west of the two continents via Central Asia.
Roads are a key element of Kazakhstan’s transport system: they provide access to rural areas and facilitate transit traffic and in-country movement. Despite this, much of the country’s road network was for a long time in poor condition.