Urban development for economic growth was a universal strategy of the government of India under its 10th Five-Year Plan (FYP), 2002−2007, and 11th FYP, 2007−2012. The strategy was spearheaded by urban development schemes such as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission and its subcomponent, the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns.
In October 2007, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $273 million multitranche financing facility (MFF) for the Rajasthan Urban Sector Development Investment Program. The MFF or investment program was designed to improve the urban environment; promote ongoing reforms for sustainable, efficient, and responsive urban service delivery; and close the development gap in the state through in
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Armenia’s water supply and sanitation systems declined because of economic collapse, inadequate investment, poor operation and maintenance (O&M), and lack of management skills.
In 2006, only about 46% of Viet Nam’s rural population had access to clean water, and water was not available throughout the year. About 83% had latrines, but only 48% of these were hygienic, by government standards. Knowledge of individual sanitation remained poor.
Following the recession triggered by the 2009 global financial crisis, Armenia’s infrastructure public spending fell sharply, contributing to further deterioration of the country’s road and water assets and services. To help address the situation, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved in August 2014 a $49 million concessional loan from the Asian Development Fund for Armenia’s Infrastructur