Gansu province in 2009 had the second-lowest gross domestic product per capita in the People’s Republic of China. Its Tianshui municipality’s 3.6 million inhabitants included 640,000 urban dwellers in Qinzhou and Maiji districts with an estimated urban poverty rate of 13.5%.
Altay is the northernmost area in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwest of the People’s Republic of China, close to Central Asia. The area suffers from a very harsh climate, with subzero temperatures between October and March, annual precipitation of about 180 millimeters, and a high evaporation rate of about 2,000 millimeters.
In October 2007, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $273 million multitranche financing facility (MFF) for the Rajasthan Urban Sector Development Investment Program, which was designed to improve the urban environment and promote ongoing reforms for sustainable, efficient, and responsive urban service delivery.
Urban development for economic growth was a universal strategy of the government of India under its 10th Five-Year Plan (FYP), 2002−2007, and 11th FYP, 2007−2012. The strategy was spearheaded by urban development schemes such as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission and its subcomponent, the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns.
The project appraisal in 2010 saw the North–South Economic Corridor (NSEC), which connects Greater Mekong Subregion countries and southeastern People’s Republic of China (PRC), as a dynamic area of development. Its eastern branch, which links Kunming and Nanning in the PRC to Ha Noi and northern Viet Nam, was experiencing rapid growth due to increasing investments, cross-border trade, and flow