Because of lack of job opportunities in the rural areas and prolonged conflict, Nepal experienced rapid urbanization from internal migration. Rapid urbanization resulted in inadequate urban infrastructure and services, including intermittent drinking water supply, poor water quality, and poor sanitation.
Lake Issyk–Kul in the eastern part of the Kyrgyz Republic is the world’s second largest saline lake; a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity; and a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization designated biosphere reserve. In September 2009, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $16.5 million loan and a $13.5 million grant for the Issyk-Kul Sustainable Deve
At project appraisal in 2009, there was no piped water supply in the Khorezm province and in eight project towns of the Republic of Karakalpakstan an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan, and the residents relied largely on yard swigs, wells, or purchased drinking water.
In 2006, only about 46% of Viet Nam’s rural population had access to clean water, and water was not available throughout the year. About 83% had latrines, but only 48% of these were hygienic, by government standards. Knowledge of individual sanitation remained poor.
Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.