Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, is a regional hub between the eastern and western regions of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The main city is located on the banks of the Yellow River and contained within a narrow east–west valley with steep terrain at both the north and south that effectively constrains further expansion of the city.
Yichang is a prefecture-level in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Hubei province’s second largest city after Wuhan, the provincial capital. While as of the end of 2011, its urbanization rate was well below the national average, its urban population was forecasted to increase to 2.8 million by 2030 due to continuing migration.
In 2011, 27% of the rural population of Yunnan, a mountainous area located in the southwest of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), was living below the national poverty line. The large poverty pockets were linked to inadequate road access, limited arable land, and cultural barriers to outmigration.
The government of India launched the Prime Minister’s Rural Roads Program (PMGSY) on December 2000 as a centrally sponsored scheme to provide all-weather access to unconnected eligible rural habitations. By improving the connectivity of these habitations, the PMGSY hopes to accelerate agricultural and rural economic growth and thereby reduce poverty more rapidly and inclusively.
Indonesia’s provinces and islands have varying levels of development, and this is greatly influenced by the existing transport infrastructure. At project appraisal, the density of the national road network was relatively low and significantly lower in less developed areas, although the country overall had a vast network of roads.