By implementing market-oriented reforms, Viet Nam achieved robust economic growth over an extended period. As a result, the country advanced from a narrow inward-looking economy to a rapidly growing lower-middle-income economy. In 2011, when the project was designed, it was entering a new phase in which past gains were to be consolidated and new challenges were to be addressed.
A380 highway, the main route between northwestern and southeastern Uzbekistan, is a regionally important road. Prior to the program, the condition of its pavement had deteriorated because of deferred maintenance and traffic increase.
At project appraisal in 2009, accessibility was a major development constraint in Bhutan. The road network provided inadequate connectivity and coverage. Travel between the east and west regions relied on either a single national highway in the north or on Indian road connections south of the Bhutan–India border.