At project appraisal in 2009, accessibility was a major development constraint in Bhutan. The road network provided inadequate connectivity and coverage. Travel between the east and west regions relied on either a single national highway in the north or on Indian road connections south of the Bhutan–India border.
Under Vision 2030, the government of Pakistan plans to raise the ratio of trade to gross domestic product (GDP) to 60% from 30% in 2007. To achieve this target, it launched the National Trade Corridor Improvement Program (NTCIP), which aims to bring about better connectivity and trade facilitation through improved logistics, and consequently enhance export competitiveness and diversification.
Beijing and Tianjin municipalities and Hebei province make up the economically important Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in the northern part of the People’s Republic China (PRC). Home to 109.2 million people, the region generated 10% of national gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013. It is an engine of PRC’s socioeconomic development, but poor air quality jeopardizes sustainable growth.
While Sri Lanka’s road density, at project appraisal in 2005, was higher than that of many developing countries, because of poor quality and condition, its road network was incapable of meeting the rapidly growing freight and passenger traffic.
Following the recession triggered by the 2009 global financial crisis, Armenia’s infrastructure public spending fell sharply, contributing to further deterioration of the country’s road and water assets and services. To help address the situation, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved in August 2014 a $49 million concessional loan from the Asian Development Fund for Armenia’s Infrastructur