Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, is a regional hub between the eastern and western regions of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The main city is located on the banks of the Yellow River and contained within a narrow east–west valley with steep terrain at both the north and south that effectively constrains further expansion of the city.
Yichang is a prefecture-level in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Hubei province’s second largest city after Wuhan, the provincial capital. While as of the end of 2011, its urbanization rate was well below the national average, its urban population was forecasted to increase to 2.8 million by 2030 due to continuing migration.
The economy of Hefei, the capital city and economic center of Anhui province in the eastern part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), has been growing at an average annual rate of 13.5% since 2000. Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization have led to urban environmental pollution and degradation.