Following the recession triggered by the 2009 global financial crisis, Armenia’s infrastructure public spending fell sharply, causing further deterioration of the country’s road and water assets and services. To help address the situation, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved in August 2014 a $49 million concessional loan from the Asian Development Fund for Armenia’s Infrastructure Sustai
Project appraisal in 2010 saw the North–South Economic Corridor (NSEC), which connects Greater Mekong Subregion countries and southeastern People’s Republic of China (PRC), as a dynamic area of development. Its eastern branch, which links Kunming and Nanning in the PRC to Ha Noi and northern Viet Nam, was experiencing rapid growth due to increasing investments, cross-border trade, and flow of
At 24% in 2001, the urbanization level in Rajasthan in northwestern India was lower than the national average. However, slums were emerging fast and by then were already home to more than 20% of the urban population. The growth in slums and slum populations hastened the deterioration of the urban environment.
Thanh Hoa City is the capital and only major urban center of Viet Nam’s third largest but second poorest and second most populous province of Thanh Hoa. With a population of 200,000 in 2008, rising by 1.9% per year, it was one of the 11 class II secondary cities targeted by government for development to limit migration to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
Nomadic and rural Mongolia has experienced rapid urbanization since 1950, which accelerated during the transition from central planning to a market-based economy in the early 1990s. A series of harsh winters or dzuds resulted in large numbers of livestock deaths, damaging herders’ livelihoods.