By 2012, the Indonesian economy had recovered from the 2008 global financial crisis, with gross domestic product (GDP) growth above 6%, the debt-to-GDP ratio declining, the fiscal deficit below 2% of GDP, and the primary balance in surplus. Inflation was low in comparison to previous periods and the current account was in surplus.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.
Samoa’s narrow economy and limited resources create a difficult environment for business, and make the country highly vulnerable to global economic shocks. Frequent natural calamities exacerbate this vulnerability, as demonstrated by the cascade of negative impacts on the country’s economy by the global financial crisis in 2008, a tsunami in 2009, and Tropical Cyclone Evan in 2012.
Until the first half of this decade, Pakistan's public sector enterprises (PSEs) continued to have generally weak financial health and relied on significant regular fiscal transfers and sovereign credit guarantees to maintain their operations.