Samoa’s narrow economy and limited resources create a difficult environment for business, and make the country highly vulnerable to global economic shocks. Frequent natural calamities exacerbate this vulnerability, as demonstrated by the cascade of negative impacts on the country’s economy by the global financial crisis in 2008, a tsunami in 2009, and Tropical Cyclone Evan in 2012.
Until the first half of this decade, Pakistan's public sector enterprises (PSEs) continued to have generally weak financial health and relied on significant regular fiscal transfers and sovereign credit guarantees to maintain their operations.
Pakistan’s nationalization program in the 1970s led to significant government ownership of companies and parastatal bodies across all economic sectors. Recognizing the limitations of this setup, the government started privatizing selected entities in the 1990s. Still, as of 2014, it owned 191 public sector enterprises (PSEs), some of which were profitable, while most were struggling to make p