Pakistan’s nationalization program in the 1970s led to significant government ownership of companies and parastatal bodies across all economic sectors. Recognizing the limitations of this setup, the government started privatizing selected entities in the 1990s.
Kiribati is challenged by geographic isolation, limited human and financial resources, and a narrow economic base. It is extremely vulnerable to economic and natural disaster shocks due to its high exposure to climate change, severe import dependency, and heavy reliance on income from external sources.
Samoa, a small and remote Pacific island country, is particularly vulnerable to economic and natural disaster shocks. In 2008−2009, it suffered severely from these shocks as, following the global economic crisis that caused its tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture receipts to fall, a tsunami hit the country.