Mongolia’s economy is heavily dependent on mining and vulnerable to shocks. It experienced a rapid downturn in 2016 due to the declining commodity prices and decelerating growth in the People’s Republic of China, the country’s neighbor and largest trading partner. These and other factors precipitated a steady decline in gross domestic product growth, from 17.5% in 2011 to only 1% in 2016.
The Philippine Development Plan (PDP), 2011–2016 called for real gross domestic product (GDP) to grow by an average of 7%–8% per year, investment ratios to reach 22% by 2016, and a corresponding 17% reduction in extreme poverty. Recognizing the role played by investment in meeting the broader goals of inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction, the PDP targeted public infrastructure spend
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.
At project appraisal in 2008, public investments in infrastructure in Bangladesh were found stagnant. Inadequate energy supply, congested ports, and underdeveloped transport imposed a major and growing drag on economic performance.
In 2009, the government of Uzbekistan launched the Rural Housing Scheme (RHS), involving the construction of new houses for the rural population throughout the country. The RHS was designed to reduce the disparities between urban and rural populations by channeling rural savings into housing investments to improve living standards and utilizing local contractors and construction materials to g