Until project appraisal in 2008, Viet Nam’s public health sector was burdened with aged, physically degraded, and poorly equipped infrastructure. Congestion in the provincial facilities was common as patients bypassed less equipped district− and commune−level facilities. Provincial health staff knowledge and skills also needed improvement.
Just 2−4 years after it was severely hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Indonesian economy began to steadily recover. Real gross domestic product growth rose from 0.8% in 1998 to 2%–3% during 2000–2002 and reached 5.5% in 2006. Wide−ranging finance sector reforms accounted for much of this recovery.
In pursuit of export-driven growth, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) established discrete rural enclaves, which generated local jobs and a cash economy, in contrast to their surroundings where people relied on subsistence farming. However, these enclaves also inadvertently fostered the exchange of goods and cash for sex among the mostly impoverished surrounding populations.
Public health care in Pakistan has been persistently underfinanced by the three levels of government responsible for it: federal, provincial, and district. Per capita public health expenditure has thus been consistently low. For example, at program appraisal in 2008, health sector spending in the country’s Punjab province averaged 0.5% of gross domestic product and 8% of total public spendin