Until project appraisal in 2008, Viet Nam’s public health sector was burdened with aged, physically degraded, and poorly equipped infrastructure. Congestion in the provincial facilities was common as patients bypassed less equipped district− and commune−level facilities. Provincial health staff knowledge and skills also needed improvement.
Just 2−4 years after it was severely hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Indonesian economy began to steadily recover. Real gross domestic product growth rose from 0.8% in 1998 to 2%–3% during 2000–2002 and reached 5.5% in 2006. Wide−ranging finance sector reforms accounted for much of this recovery.
Public health care in Pakistan has been persistently underfinanced by the three levels of government responsible for it: federal, provincial, and district. Per capita public health expenditure has thus been consistently low. For example, at program appraisal in 2008, health sector spending in the country’s Punjab province averaged 0.5% of gross domestic product and 8% of total public spendin