Until project appraisal in 2008, Viet Nam’s public health sector was burdened with aged, physically degraded, and poorly equipped infrastructure. Congestion in the provincial facilities was common as patients bypassed less equipped district− and commune−level facilities. Provincial health staff knowledge and skills also needed improvement.
Just 2−4 years after it was severely hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Indonesian economy began to steadily recover. Real gross domestic product growth rose from 0.8% in 1998 to 2%–3% during 2000–2002 and reached 5.5% in 2006. Wide−ranging finance sector reforms accounted for much of this recovery.