Sindh is the second most populous province of Pakistan. In 2006, nearly half of its 38 million people lived in the urban areas. Poor quality, inadequate, and unreliable urban services and increasing urban poverty were key challenges, particularly in the secondary cities of Sindh facing rapid population growth.
Jiaozhou is a county-level city under the administration of Qingdao Municipality on the northwest coast of Jiaozhou Bay in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the city began in the early 2000s.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) achieved unprecedented economic growth between 1986 and 2005. One of the unintended consequences was severe environmental degradation, especially the pollution of water bodies. The government’s plans to contain water pollution had not kept pace with the rate of agricultural, industrial, and urban growth.
Agriculture is central to the economic growth of Punjab and the incomes of the poor rural households in the province. But underperforming irrigation infrastructure and institutions constrained the productivity of irrigated agriculture that, at program appraisal, covered 8.4 million hectares, accounted for more than 26% of the provincial gross domestic product (GDP) and 66% of the national agri