For nearly 3 decades, Sri Lanka had been severely affected by an internal armed conflict. The entire country suffered but the Northern Province bore the brunt of the conflict. The conflict intensified from February 2007 and government forces gained full control in May 2009.
Thanh Hoa City is the capital and only major urban center of Viet Nam’s third largest but second poorest and second most populous province of Thanh Hoa. With a population of 200,000 in 2008, rising by 1.9% per year, it was one of the 11 class II secondary cities targeted by government for development to limit migration to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.