Urbanization in Bangladesh had been increasing at a rate of 6% per year since 1971. As of 2005, an estimated 38 million people or 27% of the total population lived in urban areas. Despite significant progress in poverty reduction, 37% of the urban population were below the poverty line in the 1990s.
At 24% in 2001, the urbanization level in Rajasthan in northwestern India was lower than the national average. However, slums were emerging fast and by then were already home to more than 20% of the urban population. The growth in slums and slum populations hastened the deterioration of the urban environment.