Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.
Sindh is the second most populous province in Pakistan. In 2006, it had a total 38 million people, nearly half of whom lived in the urban areas. Karachi and Hyderabad, the province’s two largest cities, accounted for about 70% of the urban population.
At 24% in 2001, the urbanization level in Rajasthan in northwestern India was lower than the national average. However, slums were emerging fast and by then were already home to more than 20% of the urban population. The growth in slums and slum populations hastened the deterioration of the urban environment.
During the appraisal of this program, Palau’s water and sanitation sector was characterized by (i) an inadequate legal and regulatory framework, (ii) low tariffs and high consumption, (iii) fragmented management and service delivery responsibilities, (iv) inefficient operations and management, and (v) a projected water shortage due to excessive demand growth and high system losses.
At around project appraisal in 2006, Bangladesh had a total of about 140 million people, a quarter of whom lived in urban areas. While overall population was growing at 1.4% per year, urban population increased at 2.5% or nearly twice the national rate. Uncontrolled urbanization and rural-to-urban migration was creating heavy and largely unabated demands on the country’s urban infrastructure.