Thanh Hoa City is the capital and only major urban center of Viet Nam’s third largest but second poorest and second most populous province of Thanh Hoa. With a population of 200,000 in 2008, rising by 1.9% per year, it was one of the 11 class II secondary cities targeted by government for development to limit migration to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
At 24% in 2001, the urbanization level in Rajasthan in northwestern India was lower than the national average. However, slums were emerging fast and by then were already home to more than 20% of the urban population. The growth in slums and slum populations hastened the deterioration of the urban environment.