In 2006, only about 46% of Viet Nam’s rural population had access to clean water, and water was not available throughout the year. About 83% had latrines, but only 48% of these were hygienic, by government standards. Knowledge of individual sanitation remained poor.
Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.
Indonesia’s poor people declined from 32.53 million in March 2009 to 31.02 million in March 2010. Nevertheless, rural poverty remained high, partly because of continuing limited access to basic services and poor transport. In the urban areas where about half of the country’s 250 million people lived, only about 1% of had access to sewerage.
At around project appraisal in 2006, Bangladesh had a total of about 140 million people, a quarter of whom lived in urban areas. While overall population was growing at 1.4% per year, urban population increased at 2.5% or nearly twice the national rate. Uncontrolled urbanization and rural-to-urban migration was creating heavy and largely unabated demands on the country’s urban infrastructure.