Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.
Sindh is the second most populous province in Pakistan. In 2006, it had a total 38 million people, nearly half of whom lived in the urban areas. Karachi and Hyderabad, the province’s two largest cities, accounted for about 70% of the urban population.
At 24% in 2001, the urbanization level in Rajasthan in northwestern India was lower than the national average. However, slums were emerging fast and by then were already home to more than 20% of the urban population. The growth in slums and slum populations hastened the deterioration of the urban environment.
Armenia is a landlocked country in the mountainous region of Caucasus between Asia and Europe. Following the recession triggered by the 2009 global financial crisis, its gross domestic product (GDP) contracted by 14.1%, the economy grew at an average 4.7% from 2010 to 2012 before declining to an average of 3.3% from 2013 to 2015.
Thanh Hoa City is the capital and only major urban center of Viet Nam’s third largest but second poorest and second most populous province of Thanh Hoa. With a population of 200,000 in 2008, rising by 1.9% per year, it was one of the 11 class II secondary cities targeted by government for development to limit migration to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.