Tonga lies about 2,000 kilometers (km) north of New Zealand and 3,500 km east of Australia. It consists of 171 islands, 48 of which are inhabited, and has a population of about 100,000. About 25% of the population lives in urban areas and 70% in Tongatapu, the site of the capital city, Nuku’alofa.
After having recorded consistent budget surpluses since 2010, the government’s fiscal position deteriorated to a balanced budget in 2015, followed by budget deficits during 2016 and 2017 due to reform slippage and a change in government priorities. Joint policy dialogue with development partners through the government-led Core Economic Working Group (CEWG) lapsed during this period.
Indonesia’s provinces and islands have varying levels of development, and this is greatly influenced by the existing transport infrastructure. At project appraisal, the density of the national road network was relatively low and significantly lower in less developed areas, although the country overall had a vast network of roads.
Uzbekistan is a double landlocked country; however, with three Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) corridors crossing its territory, it is a key transit country for trade in Central Asia. Roads and railways are the dominant modes of transport, with railways vital for the bulk haul of minerals and freight, and intercity passenger services in urban areas.
Roads are the most important element of Azerbaijan’s in-land transport network and the country’s vehicle fleet was expected, as of 2007, to rapidly increase over the medium term. To expand the road network, as well as to rehabilitate/reconstruct sections that were in unsatisfactory condition because of inadequate maintenance funding and poor management of axle load control, the Asian Developme