West Bengal is the 13th largest and 4th most populous state of India. It recorded an average fiscal deficit of 4.3% of gross state domestic product (GSDP) from 2007 to 2012—double the state average of 2.1% in India during the same period. The fiscal stress was driven by the state’s low own-tax revenue (OTR) effort and high nondiscretionary expenditure on salaries, interest, and pensions.
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of the Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC), which has considerable coal reserves and generates electricity for export to other provinces, depended on coal to meet more than 90% of its energy demand in 2008. As a result, although it had less than 2% of the PRC's population, its sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were 5% of national emissions. Coal burning f
Bangladesh has undergone rapid socioeconomic progress in recent decades, attaining lower middle-income status in 2015. Between 2001 and 2019, poverty declined from 48.9% to 20.5%, and extreme poverty from 34.3% to 10.5%. However, the country has faced several challenges in its continuing climb to upper middle-income status. These challenges include (i) boosting investment to accelerate econo
Roads are the most important element of Azerbaijan’s in-land transport network and the country’s vehicle fleet was expected, as of 2007, to rapidly increase over the medium term. To expand the road network, as well as to rehabilitate/reconstruct sections that were in unsatisfactory condition because of inadequate maintenance funding and poor management of axle load control, the Asian Developme