After having recorded consistent budget surpluses since 2010, the government’s fiscal position deteriorated to a balanced budget in 2015, followed by budget deficits during 2016 and 2017 due to reform slippage and a change in government priorities. Joint policy dialogue with development partners through the government-led Core Economic Working Group (CEWG) lapsed during this period.
Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, is a regional hub between the eastern and western regions of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The main city is located on the banks of the Yellow River and contained within a narrow east–west valley with steep terrain at both the north and south that effectively constrains further expansion of the city.
The government of Nepal recognizes information and communication technology (ICT) as one of the most effective means to overcome the geographic barriers posed by its harsh topography, especially its hilly and mountainous terrain, to the effective delivery of public services and poverty reduction, and sustainable growth, particularly in the rural areas. Despite this, the development of e-govern
Viet Nam has some of the highest levels of public expenditure on infrastructure and services in Southeast Asia. Yet, higher government expenditure was not always directly associated with improved outcomes.
Punjab is a mid-sized state in India with a population of 28 million. It has a primarily agriculture-based economy that has long served as India’s granary and ensured the country’s food security. Despite its glowing past, the state economy, as of program appraisal, had been slowing down for over a decade because of high fiscal stress.