West Bengal is the 13th largest and 4th most populous state of India. It recorded an average fiscal deficit of 4.3% of gross state domestic product (GSDP) from 2007 to 2012—double the state average of 2.1% in India during the same period. The fiscal stress was driven by the state’s low own-tax revenue (OTR) effort and high nondiscretionary expenditure on salaries, interest, and pensions.
At program appraisal, the reliability of Bangladesh’s electricity supply was low and had become a major deterrent to economic development. By 2011, with more than half of Bangladesh’s population without access to electricity, improvements to electricity generation, transmission, and distribution systems were urgently required.