Tonga lies about 2,000 kilometers (km) north of New Zealand and 3,500 km east of Australia. It consists of 171 islands, 48 of which are inhabited, and has a population of about 100,000. About 25% of the population lives in urban areas and 70% in Tongatapu, the site of the capital city, Nuku’alofa.
After having recorded consistent budget surpluses since 2010, the government’s fiscal position deteriorated to a balanced budget in 2015, followed by budget deficits during 2016 and 2017 due to reform slippage and a change in government priorities. Joint policy dialogue with development partners through the government-led Core Economic Working Group (CEWG) lapsed during this period.
Most of the rural poor in the Philippines belong to landless households in southern Luzon, Mindanao, and Visayas. Lack of equitable access to means of production, including land, capital, irrigation, technology, information, employment opportunities, and markets, underpins this deep rural poverty. Various governments have responded to this age-old problem, which has caused continuing rural di
During 2000−2010, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) experienced double-digit economic growth and equally rapid growth in energy demand. Primary energy demand grew more than 110%, with carbon-intensive coal as the dominant source.
The Qinling Mountains, about 45 kilometers (km) southwest of Xi’an, the capital city of Shaanxi province in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), are a global biodiversity hotspot, supporting many endangered, rare, and/or endemic plant and animal species.