Thanh Hoa City is the capital and only major urban center of Viet Nam’s third largest but second poorest and second most populous province of Thanh Hoa. With a population of 200,000 in 2008, rising by 1.9% per year, it was one of the 11 class II secondary cities targeted by government for development to limit migration to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
In 2009, Indonesia’s vertically integrated, state electricity company, Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) had an ambitious plan to invest about $1.2 billion in the electricity distribution sector during 2010−2014 to reduce distribution losses and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. PLN intended a large part of this plan to be financed by loans from bilateral and multilateral partners.
Until project appraisal in 2008, Viet Nam’s public health sector was burdened with aged, physically degraded, and poorly equipped infrastructure. Congestion in the provincial facilities was common as patients bypassed less equipped district− and commune−level facilities. Provincial health staff knowledge and skills also needed improvement.
In mid−2000s, Madhya Pradesh in central India suffered from high electricity losses and poor service levels due to antiquated electrical distribution systems, particularly in the rural areas. This was the result of many years of insufficient funding for the expansion and maintenance of the systems.
In August 2008, a massive flood on the Koshi River in Nepal breached its east embankment, damaging a vast area of farmlands and standing crops in the Sunsari district in the eastern region. Less than a month later, incessant heavy rains caused severe landslides and flooding, ravaging the Kailali and Kanchanpur districts in the far western region.