Kiribati is one of the most remote countries in the world. It consists of 33 small coral islands, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometers of ocean. It has only one main road connecting the eastern and western islands. This main road runs the length of the extremely narrow and densely populated South Tarawa atoll.
During project preparation, an unprecedented inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in cross-border contract farming and large land concessions marked the agriculture and natural resources (ANR) sector of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Investors included businesses from the People’s Republic of China, India, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
The rapid economic growth of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has depended in part on reservoirs, which have facilitated flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, and water supply. These reservoirs are grouped by the country into three safety classes. Class III, comprising 37,032 reservoirs or 43% of the total as of end−2006, are the least safe.
Huge increases in electricity demand, averaging more than 13% annually in 2001-2008, had accompanied the rapid economic growth of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the years leading to the project appraisal in 2009. As supply could not keep pace with demand, power shortages became rampant in some areas.
Intensive coal production for local industrial and residential consumption as well as to generate electricity exports to other provinces has brought about severe air pollution in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) in the People’s Republic of China (PRC).