Nepal’s transition to democracy, following the end of a decade-long civil conflict in April 2006, had been complex and sometimes halting because of the deep ideological, social, and economic divisions that propelled the conflict.
During project preparation, an unprecedented inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in cross-border contract farming and large land concessions marked the agriculture and natural resources (ANR) sector of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Investors included businesses from the People’s Republic of China, India, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
Intensive coal production for local industrial and residential consumption as well as to generate electricity exports to other provinces has brought about severe air pollution in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) in the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.