Kazakhstan, located at the center of transport flows between Asia and Europe, provides strategic arteries for emerging transcontinental routes. It has a great transit potential, as few land transport routes can avoid the country when going north to south or east to west of the two continents via Central Asia.
After rapidly increasing for 3 decades, Thailand’s growth had slowed in the years prior to project appraisal in 2009. Reinvigorating growth by strengthening competitiveness thus became the centerpiece of the government’s economic policy.
With the aim to improve regional connectivity, cut transport costs, and increase competitiveness, the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program has been developing 6 transport corridors since 1997.
Underdeveloped infrastructure and poor domestic and international connectivity prevented Indonesia from achieving its growth potential. Furthermore, the pace of economic growth and job creation was insufficient to reverse the declining poverty reduction rate and widening rural-urban disparity as well as close the socioeconomic gap between the western and eastern regions.