Since embarking on a modernization process in 1961, Bhutan has faced increasing urban migration due to limited opportunities in the rural areas. If trends continue, close to half of the country’s population may reside in the urban centers by 2020, increasing the pressure on already strained urban infrastructure and services.
Located near the big rivers of Xunjiang and Guijiang, Wuzhou has served for centuries as a gateway city and a regional transportation hub. It connects, particularly by river transportation, the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) Guangxi province on the border with Viet Nam, with national and international markets.
In 2014, Kazakhstan experienced two external shocks that impacted economic growth, revenue performance, and the government’s ability to reduce the effects through countercyclical expenditures. The first comprised spillover effects from the economic slowdown and uncertain situation of the Russian Federation, which triggered a downward adjustment in the tenge exchange rate.
At the request of the Government of India (GOI), the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved in March 2006 a 4-tranche, $300 million multitranche financing facility (MFF) to help implement the Uttarakhand Power Sector Investment Program (UPSIP). The UPSIP aimed to meet the priority infrastructure requirements identified in Uttarakhand’s roadmap for state energy sector development.
Uttarakhand, in the northern part of India, is one the country’s poorest states. It was created in November 2000 from a split in the state of Uttar Pradesh. At around 2008, its annual per capita electricity consumption was less than half the national average, and economic development was constrained by lack of power supply.