Tajikistan is a mountainous and landlocked country with significant river systems. Because of its terrain and climate, it is highly exposed to the risk of flooding. Magnifying this risk are (i) the impacts of climate change, which have been shown by studies to likely result in more frequent and intense flood events; and (ii) the lack of adaptive capacity of Tajikistan that, as of project appr
In December 2006, the Law on Education for Mongolia was amended to extend the education system from 11 to 12 years, and lower the school-entry age from 7 to 6 years in line with international standards. This fundamental change, effective from school year (SY) 2008/09, required updating the curricula, textbooks, teaching–learning materials, and teachers’ skills and knowledge.
Until 2009, the small, remote state of Mizoram in India’s northeast region, had a weak economic base and poor infrastructure. Improving this condition was contingent on several factors, not the least of which was a strong fiscal position of the state. Due to substantial grants from the central government, Mizoram attained a revenue surplus during most of 2003−2009.
Public health care in Pakistan has been persistently underfinanced by the three levels of government responsible for it: federal, provincial, and district. Per capita public health expenditure has thus been consistently low. For example, at program appraisal in 2008, health sector spending in the country’s Punjab province averaged 0.5% of gross domestic product and 8% of total public spendin