The Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) of Sri Lanka, the first Asian Development Bank (ADB) program to use the results-based lending (RBL) modality, was approved in June 2013 for $200 million. It supported selected result areas of the government’s Education Sector Development Framework and Program (ESDFP), 2013–2017, which aimed to transform the school education system to create the h
In 2011, about 80% of Nepal’s population lived in the rural areas, where poverty rates were higher than in urban areas. The growth of agriculture, which comprised the predominant source of rural income and livelihood, was constrained by lack of value chain integration, as rural farmers were mostly subsistence farmers.
Despite a decade of conflict until 2006 followed by protracted political instability, Nepal, as of project appraisal, had made good progress in reducing poverty and achieving almost universal enrollment in primary education with gender parity.
During the first decade after Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991, most roads in the country were in an unsatisfactory condition because of insufficient maintenance funding and the weak enforcement of vehicle axle–load controls. A large part of the road network consequently required reconstruction or rehabilitation.