Nomadic and rural Mongolia has experienced rapid urbanization since 1950, which accelerated during the transition from central planning to a market-based economy in the early 1990s. A series of harsh winters or dzuds resulted in large numbers of livestock deaths, damaging herders’ livelihoods.
The transport sector is important to Pakistan’s economy. In 2005, it comprised about 10% of the country’s gross domestic product. Road transport was the dominant mode, accounting for 91% of passenger and 96% of freight traffic. The national highway network, consisting of 8,320 kilometers (km) of highways and 710 km of motorways, carried 75%–80% of all national traffic.
Samoa, a small and remote Pacific island country, is particularly vulnerable to economic and natural disaster shocks. In 2008−2009, it suffered severely from these shocks as, following the global economic crisis that caused its tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture receipts to fall, a tsunami hit the country.
Many of the poor households in the provinces surrounding the Tonle Sap Lake would migrate seasonally to the lake and upland forests to meet their food shortfalls and supplement their livelihood in the villages.
Tourism is one of the most dynamic sectors of the world. With total global demand reaching $7 trillion in 2007, it accounted for around 10% of the global gross domestic product and employed 240 million people. International tourist arrivals exceeded 880 million, with total receipts estimated at $700 billion.