Landlocked Bihar, in the middle of India’s Gangetic plain region, is one of the country’s poorest, most populated, and economically backward states. Its road network, during project appraisal in 2008, was poor in terms of coverage and condition, and strengthening it to support the state’s economic development was a high priority.
Agriculture is an important driver of Punjab province’s economic growth and a pillar of Pakistan’s food security. During the early 2000s, it accounted for more than 26% of Punjab’s gross domestic product and employed over 40% of the provincial labor force. Punjab’s contribution to the country’s agriculture sector was estimated at 57%.
Over 2003–2008, Viet Nam’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average of 7.7% per year. While agriculture’s GDP share declined from 22.5% in 2003 to 20.4% in 2008, the country’s agricultural products achieved greater competitiveness and their exports expanded significantly.
Viet Nam’s gross domestic product (GDP) had grown at an average of 7.5% per annum over 1996–2006 and reached 8.2% in 2006. Building on this remarkable performance, the government was determined to maintain a high economic growth of 8.0%–8.5% in 2006–2010 to reduce poverty to 11%–15% by 2010.
Project appraisal in 2010 saw the North–South Economic Corridor (NSEC), which connects Greater Mekong Subregion countries and southeastern People’s Republic of China (PRC), as a dynamic area of development. Its eastern branch, which links Kunming and Nanning in the PRC to Ha Noi and northern Viet Nam, was experiencing rapid growth due to increasing investments, cross-border trade, and flow of