Inadequate road connectivity has been an obstacle to economic growth in rural India. To address the issue, the government launched the Prime Minister’s Rural Roads Program (PMGSY) in 2000. PMGSY is expected to upgrade about 738,000 kilometers (km) of rural roads to an all-weather standard at a total estimated cost of about $30 billion.
In the years leading to project preparation in 2005, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) had experienced a sharp rise in demand for agricultural products, especially higher-value horticultural and livestock products.
Kiribati is one of the most remote countries in the world. It consists of 33 small coral islands, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometers of ocean. It has only one main road connecting the eastern and western islands. This main road runs the length of the extremely narrow and densely populated South Tarawa atoll.