Chongqing, a municipality in the southwest portion of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), comprises 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. It covers a large area crossed by rivers and mountains, and has a large geological massif of mountains and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights.
Jiaozhou is a county-level city under the administration of Qingdao Municipality on the northwest coast of Jiaozhou Bay in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the city began in the early 2000s.
As in many other provinces of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Shanxi's rapid urbanization has fueled a rising demand for housing and urban infrastructure. Strong economic growth, higher incomes, and the privatization of housing has likewise driven an increasing demand for district heating that, because of the abundance of coal, has relied primarily on the burning of this fossil fuel.
During project appraisal in 2010, Shandong was the second largest province in terms of industrial outputs in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Its energy supply depended heavily on fossil fuels—coal (71%) and oil (26%)—causing high levels of carbon emissions. Its industry sector consumed over three quarters of its total energy in 2009.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) achieved unprecedented economic growth between 1986 and 2005. One of the unintended consequences was severe environmental degradation, especially the pollution of water bodies. The government’s plans to contain water pollution had not kept pace with the rate of agricultural, industrial, and urban growth.