Mongolia is a vast, sparsely populated country located between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the south and the Russian Federation to the north. Its western region suffers from a slow pace of development because of remoteness from the country’s political and economic centers and inadequate transport network.
Strong economic growth, driven by years of economic reforms and the country’s vast mineral wealth, supported Mongolia’s rise to middle-income status in 2011. It also bolstered fiscal revenues and allowed the government to strengthen its social welfare programs, which were crucial for inclusive development, as the mining sector that comprised the main driver of growth provided less than 4% of e
Nomadic and rural Mongolia has experienced rapid urbanization since 1950, which accelerated during the transition from central planning to a market-based economy in the early 1990s. A series of harsh winters or dzuds resulted in large numbers of livestock deaths, damaging herders’ livelihoods.
In December 2006, the Law on Education for Mongolia was amended to extend the education system from 11 to 12 years, and lower the school-entry age from 7 to 6 years in line with international standards. This fundamental change, effective from school year (SY) 2008/09, required updating the curricula, textbooks, teaching–learning materials, and teachers’ skills and knowledge.
In December 2006, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $5 million loan and $500,000 grant for Mongolia’s Customs Modernization Project. The project reflected government’s efforts to promote trade and improve the investment climate through customs reform and modernization. It also supported the country’s accession to the Revised Kyoto Convention of the World Customs Organization and the