West Bengal is the 13th largest and 4th most populous state of India. It recorded an average fiscal deficit of 4.3% of gross state domestic product (GSDP) from 2007 to 2012—double the state average of 2.1% in India during the same period. The fiscal stress was driven by the state’s low own-tax revenue (OTR) effort and high nondiscretionary expenditure on salaries, interest, and pensions.
Bangladesh has undergone rapid socioeconomic progress in recent decades, attaining lower middle-income status in 2015. Between 2001 and 2019, poverty declined from 48.9% to 20.5%, and extreme poverty from 34.3% to 10.5%. However, the country has faced several challenges in its continuing climb to upper middle-income status. These challenges include (i) boosting investment to accelerate econo
Mongolia’s economy grew rapidly between 2004 and 2014. This propelled the country into middle-income status by 2011 and allowed it to expand its social welfare programs through large fiscal surpluses and distributed mining income. Social transfers, which accounted for about 40% of the income of poor people, significantly reduced poverty.
Taking a cautious approach to address gender-based violence (GBV), which is a non-traditional area for Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance, ADB approved a grant of $750,000 from the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR) for a pilot project on Establishing Women and Children Service Centers (WCSCs) in Nepal in July 2009.