The Philippines is an early leader in the move towards decentralized local governance and fiscal decentralization in Southeast Asia. As early as the 1970s, it explored various institutional and legal arrangements for central–local fiscal relations. In 1991, it passed the Local Government Code, providing an ambitious mandate for local governments to deliver public services.
Nepal’s transition to democracy, following the end of a decade-long civil conflict in April 2006, had been complex and sometimes halting because of the deep ideological, social, and economic divisions that propelled the conflict.
For nearly 3 decades, Sri Lanka had been severely affected by an internal armed conflict. The entire country suffered but the Northern Province bore the brunt of the conflict. The conflict intensified from February 2007 and government forces gained full control in May 2009.