By 2012, the Indonesian economy had recovered from the 2008 global financial crisis, with gross domestic product (GDP) growth above 6%, the debt-to-GDP ratio declining, the fiscal deficit below 2% of GDP, and the primary balance in surplus. Inflation was low in comparison to previous periods and the current account was in surplus.
After decades of preferential treatment, incentives, and subsidies, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Viet Nam failed to compete effectively, and their financial problems created significant fiscal risks. Having virtually no access to private capital markets, general corporations had relied on extensive borrowing from the government and state-owned commercial banks to finance their operations.
Within the past two decades, Cambodia has transformed from a post-conflict country to a small, open and vibrant economy, growing by more than 10% in 2004 and maintaining a double-digit expansion through 2007.
In 2014, Kazakhstan experienced two external shocks that impacted economic growth, revenue performance, and the government’s ability to reduce the effects through countercyclical expenditures. The first comprised spillover effects from the economic slowdown and uncertain situation of the Russian Federation, which triggered a downward adjustment in the tenge exchange rate.