In December 2000, the government of India launched the Prime Minister’s Rural Roads Program (PMGSY) as a centrally sponsored scheme to provide all-weather access to unconnected eligible rural habitations. By improving the connectivity of these habitations, the PMGSY aims to accelerate agricultural and rural economic growth and thereby reduce poverty faster and in a more inclusive manner.
Despite a decade of conflict until 2006 followed by protracted political instability, Nepal, as of project appraisal, had made good progress in reducing poverty and achieving almost universal enrollment in primary education with gender parity.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.
During 1998–2008, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) supported the Vocational and Technical Education Project in Viet Nam to improve the technical skills of students and teachers. Lessons from this project pointed to the need for (i) strengthening school and central level management, and (ii) implementing a training system that will update teachers’ skills and response to new technologies and ch