Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.
During project appraisal in 2010, Shandong was the second largest province in terms of industrial outputs in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Its energy supply depended heavily on fossil fuels—coal (71%) and oil (26%)—causing high levels of carbon emissions. Its industry sector consumed over three quarters of its total energy in 2009.
Maldives, a South Asian country of 1,190 islands grouped in 26 atolls and spread over 90,000 square kilometers in the Indian Ocean, graduated to middle-income status in 2011. After 30 years of presidency, it transitioned to a parliamentary democracy in 2005, and in 2008, had a new constitution ratified, paving the way for the first multi-party presidential elections.
A healthy level of private investment is essential for Viet Nam to achieve the 7%–8% annual economic growth rate and the 8 million new jobs it has targeted under the Socio-Economic Development Strategy, 2011–2020. Increasingly, such contribution is expected to come from the domestic private sector, largely composed of small and medium−sized enterprises (SMEs).