In 2011, about 80% of Nepal’s population lived in the rural areas, where poverty rates were higher than in urban areas. The growth of agriculture, which comprised the predominant source of rural income and livelihood, was constrained by lack of value chain integration, as rural farmers were mostly subsistence farmers.
In the years leading to project preparation in 2005, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) experienced a sharp rise in demand for agricultural products, especially higher-value horticultural and livestock products.
In 2006, Sanmenxia municipality in the Henan province of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) witnessed its highest economic growth rate since 1997. Gross domestic product (GDP) rose by 16.5% over 2005. Per capita GDP exceeded both the provincial and national averages. A key factor was the high domestic and export demand for fruits and fruit products.
Agriculture has always been an important sector of India’s economy. In 2009, it contributed 16% of the country’s gross domestic product, and in 2010, employed 53% of its workforce. Over a decade before project appraisal in 2010, however, sector performance had been below government targets due to lack of infrastructure, weak backward-forward linkages, and inadequate production capital.
Shanxi province is situated in the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the eastern part of the Loess Plateau in northern People’s Republic of China (PRC). At project appraisal, it had only about 3.8 million hectares of dependable arable land, of modest quality and productivity, for its 23 million rural population.