Mongolia is a vast, sparsely populated country located between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the south and the Russian Federation to the north. Its western region suffers from a slow pace of development because of remoteness from the country’s political and economic centers and inadequate transport network.
In 2009, the government of Uzbekistan launched a program to construct new housing for the rural population throughout the country. The program was designed to reduce urban and rural disparities by increasing the living standards, incomes, and job opportunities in rural regions.
During the first decade after the country regained independence in 1991, the quality and efficiency of water supply and sanitation services (WSS) in Azerbaijan declined because of poor management and inadequate investment.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.
Because of lack of job opportunities in the rural areas and prolonged conflict, Nepal experienced rapid urbanization from internal migration. Rapid urbanization resulted in inadequate urban infrastructure and services, including intermittent drinking water supply, poor water quality, and poor sanitation.