Category: Country - Indonesia

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This program’s results framework and targets were closely aligned with PLN’s key performance indicators (KPIs), which were based on PLN’s RUPTL, 20152024 and Indonesia’s National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN), 20152019. PLN has established KPIs in its corporate plan and has regularly reflected these in its annual reports. The close alignment between the PLN’s KPIs and the program’s results framework and targets encouraged the PLN to achieve the DLI targets. Power utility companies in other countries would benefit from similar arrangements that are beneficial for the attainment of both the program and corporate performance targets. 

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

completion, six of the seven safeguard PAPs were achieved.  The implementation of the safeguard PAPs has improved the capacity of PLN, especially at the unit level, to manage environmental and social impacts.  By excluding 190 circuit-kilometer (ckm) of medium-voltage lines in the indigenous peoples’ area and 428.19 ckm of medium-voltage lines and 284.98 ckm low-voltage lines in the key biodiversity areas, the PAPs minimized the risks to ADB safeguards compliance.  But the exclusion also eliminated indigenous peoples’ access to program benefits. In the upcoming review of ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement, the provisions for this modality could consider how significant risks associated with government-funded programs could be better addressed.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

The RBL modality tested in Indonesia through this program came out successful and easier to implement with lower transaction costs.   It was flexible enough and allowed the PLN to select investments based on its changing requirements even during program implementation.  Therefore, it is well suited to large power systems where demand and the technology available can change within a short time.  By focusing on aggregate outputs and result areas as opposed to monitoring each contract, the program was able to support PLN in an effective programmatic manner. 

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

Monitoring the progress against targets of PLN’s broader Sumatra program, which the RBL supported, was not considered part of the RBL administration responsibility. Therefore, the threats posed by the lack of financing for the broader program and the subsequent removal of some of its major components were not sufficiently tracked down and addressed under the RBL.  It is important for future RBL programs to include in their monitoring all associated interventions that could have an impact on their implementation to enable necessary actions to be taken promptly to address deficiencies and/or avoid negative unintended consequences.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

Some of the DLI targets and baselines set during program preparation were found to be conservative or inconsistent. Adjustments were made during implementation to make them more realistic.  The target on energy sales was significantly affected by external factors beyond PLN’s control, including lower economic growth than anticipated under the PLN’s Power Supply Business Plan (RUPTL), energy subsidy removal, and the changing costumer consumption behavior. The experience has highlighted the importance of (i) setting DLIs that are within program control and not vulnerable to external factors, (ii) setting ambitious but achievable targets based on historic trends and EA/IA capacity, and (iii) having enough flexibility to adjust to changes in the external environment.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

Through the Indonesia Resident Mission, ADB ensured that lessons learned from program implementation were used in the design of PLN subsequent RBL programs.  Building on the program’s success in improving warehouse and waste management in Sumatra, ADB and the PLN transitioned this PAP into a DLI in the RBL programs for Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan, Maluku, and Papua.  Adjusting DLI targets and verification protocols as needed is also a lesson learned that found useful application in subsequent programs. 

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

By using disbursement-linked indicators (DLIs), non-DLI targets, and program action plans (PAPs) under the results-based lending (RBL) modality, the program successfully instituted mechanisms that strengthened the capacity and encouraged performance improvements from Indonesia’s State Electricity Company, PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara), in both technical and administrative areas.  Improvements spanned: (i) the procurement monitoring system, where inconsistencies in reporting were identified and addressed through regular procurement monitoring; (ii) the planning and implementation capacity of PLN, which (a) made the preparation of subsequent RBL programs easier, (b) enhanced coordination among PLN divisions, and (c) enhanced PLN’s ability to continue to access debt capital markets and the bank debt market (PLN has supportive relationships with banks and investors so has access to multiple channels of commercial financing); (iii) PLN’s processes for the recording, collection, calculation, and reporting of data used to measure and track the DLIs and non-DLIs, particularly the management reporting information system and its primary sources of data; and (iv) warehouse and waste management.  Because of the stronger evaluation culture developed by the RBL, the program also helped PLN recognize the need to update its internal regulations on the disposal of Non-Operating Fixed Assets (ATTB), particularly transformers, to speed up safe disposal.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country: Indonesia

Prior to project implementation, management of the HEIs is still largely centralized when it comes to decisions on opening or closing of study programs, curriculum structure, hiring and firing of personnel, use of nonbudget revenue, etc. This constrains the initiative and flexibility of higher education institutions to respond to changing conditions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This would include assistance to improve performance in the Test of English as a Foreign Language—not only for future dealings or links with foreign universities and polytechnics, but also as a predeparture intervention for those going abroad, whether for an overseas degree fellowship or for work. The lack of English proficiency is a problem encountered by lecturers when doing postgraduate degrees abroad, and also by new graduates who are looking for a job in the main cities of Indonesia and abroad.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

For example, by having a forum through which employers can give advice on national and institution specific policies, plans and programs. Linkages between educational entities and industries by way of collaboration in curriculum design and partnerships in job orientation programs were observed during the IEM. However, the extent varies depending on the higher education institution. For the institutions, one such forum could be an industry advisory board composed of representatives of selected business enterprises in their area. The formation of an industry advisory board at each higher education institution may require defining the duties and responsibilities, and providing guidelines on the composition of members, frequency of meetings, reporting, and related matters. Nationally, an annual consultative forum may be required, where government policymakers, employers, and educators discuss policies and program design to respond to trends in the labor market. In this context, the government could encourage the continuation and expansion of a valuable practice at some higher education institutions—including in the curriculum on-the-job training opportunities in industries—since the IEM found that employers first had to train their newly recruited graduates for 3–12 months, although the graduates are highly trainable.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

There is ongoing development of an integrated monitoring and evaluation system backed up by a management information system at the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) that is linked to individual higher education institutions. An annual tracer study consolidated from standardized tracer studies conducted or commissioned by individual HEIs would be useful to obtain meaningful impact assessments and determine improvement needs to sustain not only this project but also other initiatives at the DGHE.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This mechanism is found to be effective which has been adopted by other development partners, and national and local governments. What made it more laudable as a mechanism for higher education institutions was the added feature that bidders within a region compete only among themselves rather than at large, thereby ensuring geographic representation of assisted higher education institutions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

. This was based on the performance of the private higher education institutions. However, outcomes would be maximized if the components of assistance have mutually reinforcing or synergistic effects. Providing at least a minimum scale of assistance to fewer beneficiaries produces better results than spreading the resources thinly among more beneficiaries.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

The quality of education and training at the higher education institutions varies widely; it is better in the major cities, as indicated by the number and accreditation levels of the study programs. The project supported the strengthening of the Board of National Accreditation for Higher Education and the establishment of quality assurance units to ensure the quality of the study programs. However, standards and quality per study program varies per region. This complementing component may standardize the quality of graduates with licensure exam.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Indonesia still has a relatively high maternal mortality ratio. Capacity development in the areas of obstetric and neonatal care is still required, and the evaluation team came to know from the district health departments that they have limited finance to meet this capacity development requirement. According to key informants, basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care centers are often not used to assist with complications due to perceived lack of capability, and that not all districts have a functioning hospital with required emergency capability. Considerable further investment in infrastructure and human resource capacity will be required to meet the maternal mortality MDG target by 2015.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Inclusion of family planning advocacy in future programs could help reduce maternal mortality, as high fertility and maternal mortality are correlated. During key informant interviews, many expressed an opinion that more support for family planning is needed. It will require a coordinated and balanced joint approach from MOH and BKKBN, supported by appropriate resources.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Well-functioning provincial and district systems have proven to contribute to overall coordination and control of local health service delivery. During evaluation, health facility staff frequently cited the development of human resource capacity through longer-term fellowships as a key benefit of the project. Many of the project-supported fellows are now in key positions within the district and provincial health services. Many fellows thought that their careers would not have progressed so well without the project. The skills for networking, problem-solving, and data analysis and presentation that these fellowships help develop are still being used.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This was seen as a key positive feature of the project. Informants thought that by combining better planning and infrastructure and higher quality human resources, access to health services and their quality had improved. Many felt that without a comprehensive approach this might not have happened.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

While the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach were noted during the evaluation team’s field visits, there is limited effort to quantify these benefits systematically. A survey of stakeholders was conducted at project exit and documented in a benefit-monitoring report. A range of customer satisfaction questions were posed and scored in the survey. Satisfaction indicators related to benefits associated with (i) training for midwives, (ii) utilization of skills by staff after training, (iii) availability and equipment to support MNCH, (iv) quality of civil works, (v) operations research, (vi) problem-solving ability of district health officers, (vii) staff motivation, (viii) political commitment, (ix) effectiveness of health reforms, (x) level of district funding (xi) health center utilization, (xii) safe delivery, and (xiii) patient satisfaction. However, no baseline survey was conducted with the satisfaction survey, so changes in with-and-without or before-and-after comparisons cannot be assessed. Similarly, no non-project facility appears to have been included in the survey. This would have helped in determining incremental benefits from project intervention compared with non-project situations.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

To determine project impact, a focused survey of health status and client attitudes in project and non-project provinces should have been conducted at the start (to establish a baseline) and at project completion. Without this information it is not possible to attribute and quantify shorter-term project benefits.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

A large number of staff in health service delivery received training or fellowships under the project. However, there has not been any attempt to document actual benefits stemming from this investment. A proper analysis will help the central, provincial, and district governments to determine skills gaps that can be targeted over the next couple of decades. Periodic evaluation of the value and impact of expenditure on capacity development should have been conducted. Although the number of physicians and the ratio of physicians to population have increased in all provinces and in rural areas, deployment practices and inequitable distribution remain serious concerns. M&E of current deployment and a skills audit are crucial to ascertain whether an effective long-term health workforce strategy is being implemented.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Problem analysis was undertaken to some degree during project preparations. Risks were outlined in the project framework (under Assumptions and Risks) but little detail was given in the main text of the report and recommendation of the President, or in the project design. Greater attention should have been placed on the political economy of decentralization, such as outlining key stakeholders, defining differential impacts of reforms, and identifying risks associated with possible future behavior of key stakeholders, along with capacity assessments across the broad geographic spread of the project. It would have been important to better assess the factors that help or hinder managerial and operational institutionalization of local health systems. The project did not do so. As a result, the standardized approach may not have worked in all districts. Decentralization is an evolving process and requires time to develop adequate capacity.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

The health insurance scheme piloted in the Jembrana district of Bali has been recognized as one of the successful initiatives and is now being rolled out across the entire province. A number of lessons have emerged for ADB and the World Bank from piloting of this reform. This view was shared by people interviewed during the evaluation and by the World Bank, who stated that “more lessons could undoubtedly be drawn by undertaking a comparative study of all decentralization experiences, including those supported by development partners like the World Bank and ADB. Such a study could focus on the different ways provinces have established the province-district relationship, the relative costs and benefits of each, and the variety of ways districts and provinces have developed to exercise autonomy in the health sector despite continuing lack of clarity in the policy environment and their dependency on central government funding”.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia
Independent Evaluation, ADB
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