Category: Sector - Education

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Designs prepared for the schools under this project can be prototypes for rehabilitating or constructing schools with community emergency shelters throughout the country. In fact, the Ministry of Education and Training is already using these designs for two secondary schools under a World Bank-financed project.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation
Country:

While the original and revised project design and monitoring frameworks were reasonable, the impact statement could have been nuanced to reflect the specific support provided to the education sector. The outcome and shelter-related output indicator should have been specific to the project schools to correlate with project inputs and overall objectives. The gender action plan (GAP) design could have included more quantitative indicators and activity targets for enhanced monitoring and evaluation. As GAP activities occurred later in the project cycle, baseline data could have been collected midway for refining the GAP targets during the midterm review. Regular GAP monitoring could have been strengthened, as this data would have further strengthened project management.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation, Implementation
Country:

It is unclear why a covenant was necessary to ensure the use of single-source consultant recruitment. The method may not always save time, as the need to negotiate remuneration rates poses a significant risk of offsetting the time savings from bypassing advertising and shortlisting.

Project Cycle Stage: Implementation
Country:

During project preparation, community consultations were held at each school, but testimonials indicate that some community members felt the final design did not fully consider their suggestions. Better feedback to communicate information about why certain design suggestions were not adopted could have addressed this problem. It could also have made the community feel more included and strengthened their ownership of the project.  Based on project experience, community outreach activities in future similar interventions in Vanuatu should involve (i) separate consultation sessions for males and females, with workshops scheduled on days when women are not undertaking care or income-generating activities; (ii) consultations with local communities on strengthening project sustainability; (iii) awareness-raising activities to achieve a common understanding on the basis for final design criteria and special design features; and (iv) prioritized needs-based institutional capacity building at the local level for a stronger first response to disasters, especially in remote areas.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation
Country:

Infrastructure investments based on build-back-better principles and capacity development support provided by this project contributed to strengthening disaster resilience at the local level. The post-completion review found that increasing school enrolment numbers can help to channel sufficient funds to facilities’ operation and maintenance. In addition, future projects can help improve schools’ operational sustainability through measures such as combining schools for administrative efficiencies and exploring opportunities for schools to generate additional revenue. There is also need for a national strategy and operational plan to strengthen the disaster resilience of school assets, including a holistic assessment of other school infrastructure needs.

Project Cycle Stage: Preparation
Country:

The quality of education and training at the higher education institutions varies widely; it is better in the major cities, as indicated by the number and accreditation levels of the study programs. The project supported the strengthening of the Board of National Accreditation for Higher Education and the establishment of quality assurance units to ensure the quality of the study programs. However, standards and quality per study program varies per region. This complementing component may standardize the quality of graduates with licensure exam.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Prior to project implementation, management of the HEIs is still largely centralized when it comes to decisions on opening or closing of study programs, curriculum structure, hiring and firing of personnel, use of nonbudget revenue, etc. This constrains the initiative and flexibility of higher education institutions to respond to changing conditions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This would include assistance to improve performance in the Test of English as a Foreign Language—not only for future dealings or links with foreign universities and polytechnics, but also as a predeparture intervention for those going abroad, whether for an overseas degree fellowship or for work. The lack of English proficiency is a problem encountered by lecturers when doing postgraduate degrees abroad, and also by new graduates who are looking for a job in the main cities of Indonesia and abroad.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

For example, by having a forum through which employers can give advice on national and institution specific policies, plans and programs. Linkages between educational entities and industries by way of collaboration in curriculum design and partnerships in job orientation programs were observed during the IEM. However, the extent varies depending on the higher education institution. For the institutions, one such forum could be an industry advisory board composed of representatives of selected business enterprises in their area. The formation of an industry advisory board at each higher education institution may require defining the duties and responsibilities, and providing guidelines on the composition of members, frequency of meetings, reporting, and related matters. Nationally, an annual consultative forum may be required, where government policymakers, employers, and educators discuss policies and program design to respond to trends in the labor market. In this context, the government could encourage the continuation and expansion of a valuable practice at some higher education institutions—including in the curriculum on-the-job training opportunities in industries—since the IEM found that employers first had to train their newly recruited graduates for 3–12 months, although the graduates are highly trainable.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

There is ongoing development of an integrated monitoring and evaluation system backed up by a management information system at the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) that is linked to individual higher education institutions. An annual tracer study consolidated from standardized tracer studies conducted or commissioned by individual HEIs would be useful to obtain meaningful impact assessments and determine improvement needs to sustain not only this project but also other initiatives at the DGHE.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This mechanism is found to be effective which has been adopted by other development partners, and national and local governments. What made it more laudable as a mechanism for higher education institutions was the added feature that bidders within a region compete only among themselves rather than at large, thereby ensuring geographic representation of assisted higher education institutions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

. This was based on the performance of the private higher education institutions. However, outcomes would be maximized if the components of assistance have mutually reinforcing or synergistic effects. Providing at least a minimum scale of assistance to fewer beneficiaries produces better results than spreading the resources thinly among more beneficiaries.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Project management flexibility provided to the borrower or executing agency may negatively affect project implementation and, consequently, the achievement and sustainability of project outcomes. The project could have benefitted more from a closer analysis of (i) the institutional arrangements for school financing and management; (ii) the need to rebuild schools that had deteriorated due to lack of maintenance; (iii) the budgetary and human resource implications of adding 2 years of education in 12 district secondary schools; and (iv) community acceptance of government prescriptions for enrollment ceilings and zoning, and school committee composition and responsibilities. Thus, essential sector analyses should be carried out to ensure appropriateness of project design.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

Lessons from the ESP PCR regarding harmonization of external inputs were applied to the ESP II under a sector-wide approach. While progress in harmonization of aid arrangements has been recognized in the recent evaluation of the implementation of aid effectiveness principles by the Government of Samoa, the funding agencies and government partners noted continuing problems, as arrangements require them to conform to ADB procurement systems, which are difficult to apply in a very small island country.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

The IEM's school survey highlighted the thin spread of limited resources across the formal education system, which was also noted in the 2006 National Human Development Report for Samoa. Undertaking economic analysis of the education sector with examination of affordability issues would encourage policy development toward a more efficient use of resources such as specialist teachers and modern educational technology, including computers in schools. Given the excellent roads, transport services, and communications in rural Samoa, a greater consolidation of education services will improve the achievement of education sector objectives. In addition, community understanding and appreciation of these economic issues would ensure greater efficiency in achieving equity and improving quality in Samoa’s education system.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

Following the restructuring of Public Works Department in the early phase of project implementation, a new mechanism was required to ensure proper supervision during subproject design and construction. As the midterm review for the ESP II noted, an education ministry cannot be expected to have the technical resources for this purpose.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

The institutional environment at that time was characterized by unclear mandates and overlapping roles and responsibilities and low staff absorption capacity for the planned activities. These led to uncoordinated and poorly planned trainings, improper sequencing of training programs, and duplication of efforts and use of resources. The complexity of the RMI’s TVET institutional environment required either a dedicated institution with a clear mandate on TVET or a streamlined institutional arrangement from the outset. Also, managerial, administrative, and technical capacity of concerned institutions and staff could have been considered from the start, especially the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate various activities. The conduct of project preparatory TA could be a necessary condition before undertaking a lending operation for TVET to better understand the institutional context.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Sector: Education

In particular, it is important to focus on the poor quality of education gained by students emerging from elementary and secondary levels. Before entering into any TVET project, it is essential to ensure quality basic education.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Sector: Education

At project completion, there was still a significant lack of qualified applicants to fill available teaching posts. These trainings lacked strategic direction. An institutionalized professional development program for TVET teachers could have been developed as part of project design instead of individualized and one-time training programs.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Sector: Education

As such, a phased approach could have been useful to take into account the limited technical capacity to formulate and implement skills standards, testing, and certification of trained workers. This could have been undertaken under a separate program prior to the project, covering a longer period of time and targeting priority employment areas.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Sector: Education

Governments in over 100 countries are designing, implementing, or considering national qualification frameworks or are involved with regional qualifications frameworks. The idea is that all qualifications can (and should) be expressed in terms of outcomes. Students can be tested based on their competency and certified accordingly, regardless of their learning pathways. This will help assure employers of the skills of their workers. At the same time, it will allow workers to move across sectors, as well as to other countries if the national qualification framework is aligned with regional and international frameworks. Workers can also move in and out of education to leverage on the knowledge they gain in the workplace.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Country: Viet Nam

For this project, such risks include weak and overlapping management of the vocational and technical education (VTE) system, detachment of training from industry needs, and poor social image of VTE. A streamlined system that is closely linked with the market will help ensure smooth school-to-work transition for students, which could then improve the perception of vocational training. Furthermore, the project should have focused on strengthening the administrative and management capacity of the executing agency and project implementation unit to avoid unnecessary delays.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Country: Viet Nam

The labor market information system was the first attempt of the vocational and technical education system to trace students after graduation and collect systematic information on enterprise demand. However, its complexity made the system costly and unsustainable. A more integrated and less complex system would be useful so that schools can have the resources and capacity to collect information. Schools should also be given incentives to carry out these types of survey.

Project Cycle Stage:
Theme:
Country: Viet Nam
Independent Evaluation, ADB
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