Category: Theme - Inclusive Economic Growth

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Various trainings were given to the executing and implementing agencies in water supply and wastewater treatment operations. Aside from training, emphasis on developing the institutions, such as review of the overall organization structures and terms of reference of management and staff, would be helpful in further strengthening the EA and IAs. The creation of the Tianjin Water Affairs Bureau can be regarded as a first step in overseeing the continued development of water-related IAs to focus efforts in building capacity in operational areas needed for the city’s development. Furthermore, it is also acknowledged that the commercialization of operations, through TCEPC involvement, is also another step in institutional strengthening.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: China

Such an integrated approach includes protection of upstream water sources, watersheds, rivers and other water bodies, and includes but is not limited to (i) alleviating risk of pollutant contamination from point and non-point sources of pollution; (ii) treating wastewater before discharge into such water bodies; (iii) monitoring and analyzing water quality; (iv) developing alternative sources of water supply; (v) setting up an institutional framework and strengthening the institutions; and (vi) establishing a regulatory framework that provides the right incentives for implementation of such measures. The success achieved by the project and the progress made so far in improving the Songhua River’s water quality (eventually, the project facilities and the Songhua could jointly supply urban Harbin with good-quality water) attests to the benefits of such a comprehensive approach.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: China

If tariff income falls short of requirements (assuming normative operational efficiencies), government support is required. However, as ADB may not be in a position to influence water tariff levels and structures, ADB should review the merits of including tariff setting-related covenants in the loan and project agreements, or seeking assurances on this matter.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: China

The project became effective on 7 January 2004, nearly 1 year after the group company was registered with the HMG’s Commercial and Industrial Bureau on 24 January 2003.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: China

Careful attention must be paid to the following aspects of urban institutional reform: (i) its acceptance by all key stakeholders through a participatory process; (ii) a thorough understanding of local politics; (iii) realistic phasing, sequencing, and timing of its institutional and policy reform; and (iv) an appropriate balance between allocated resources and expectations of the stakeholders involved. A more open-ended policy dialogue may yet prove more helpful than the application of loan covenants. If substantial policy change is involved, it would also be prudent to consider this as either (i) separate and parallel policy work in support of the investment components; or (ii) a two-phase process, with policy development preceding the investments.

Project Cycle Stage:

A “bottom-up” approach to urban land use could help avoid a potential overload of infrastructure and service networks due to overcrowding, pollution, increased poverty, and environmental degradation. Building on the success of the village area improvement initiative, in particular (but also community participation initiatives in earlier ADB-supported urban projects), support for community planning could complement and support higher level urban and regional plans. This would facilitate the involvement of underserved communities in determining their priorities. Such community planning may be acknowledged within the development planning and management system.

Project Cycle Stage:

The village area improvement experience highlights the importance of proactive communities during the design, implementation, and maintenance of projects. The use of similar principles may be replicated or expanded for a larger set of beneficiaries. An important lesson from the village area improvement program is its use of a demand-driven approach to development instead of the top-down, supply-driven activities of the past. The main advantages of the village area improvement approach are community inputs and an applied gender-balance concept. These include (i) the participation of many parties, (ii) consultations, (iii) action at the grassroots level, and (iv) the solidarity of the village committee members.

Project Cycle Stage:

A multisector approach in the urban sector is readily implementable in the Lao PDR, because, for the most part, subsectors are within the mandate of the ministry responsible for urban development and its provincial branches. The approach can be enhanced further with the inclusion of urban transport in urban projects. This would not be difficult, given the mandate of MPWT/DPWT. But a multisector approach may be truly tested only when more stakeholders are added to urban projects or programs, bringing in expertise from outside MPWT/DPWT. Moving forward, stronger links may have to be established between (i) infrastructure and services provision and job creation and economic development; and (ii) investments in wastewater treatment and other initiatives responsive to urban issues (e.g., vehicle emissions) that involve outside agencies. Limited experience in dealing with “outside agencies” suggests that an expanded multisector approach will be difficult to implement without clarifying roles and responsibilities across agencies, horizontally and vertically.

Project Cycle Stage:

In the context of Samoa—where the financial market is relatively underdeveloped, the collateral framework is weak, and institutions have limited capacity—a more simple and focused project design would have been more appropriate. Some of the subcomponents such as the venture capital fund, credit bureau and chattels registry were totally new activities which made the design more complex and difficult to implement. Also, clearly a modest project like this would not be the best vehicle for addressing a fundamental political issue like land ownership. Greater focus should have been placed on creating an enabling environment for the financing and growth of micro and small enterprises. This would have involved developing the policy and legal environment for the sector, which to some extent was achieved by the project, and building institutions to service the sector.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

The capacity constraints of implementing agencies were not clearly defined early on in implementation, especially the credit components. No clear strategies were developed to address constraints in the social and cultural environment and in market conditions that affect the policy component. As a result, the project suffered delays and the delivery of outputs and outcomes was significantly affected. Findings from project supervision should be used consistently to adjust project in light of experience.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

While technical assistance in the form of logistical support, advisory assistance (through consultant inputs), study tours, and training help to improve project capabilities, they do not necessarily address long-term sustainability of institutions. Efforts towards promoting sustainability, such as for the SBEC, should include developing appropriate and effective financial systems, installing an effective management information system, institutionalizing good governance and management structure, and strengthening risk assessment, loan appraisal, and monitoring skills.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

The project had no clear strategy on how the Small Business Enterprise Centre (SBEC) should be supported beyond the life of the project. The SBEC was left with a huge loan guarantee portfolio at the end of the project and no long-term means to sustain its operations.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Samoa

For example, by having a forum through which employers can give advice on national and institution specific policies, plans and programs. Linkages between educational entities and industries by way of collaboration in curriculum design and partnerships in job orientation programs were observed during the IEM. However, the extent varies depending on the higher education institution. For the institutions, one such forum could be an industry advisory board composed of representatives of selected business enterprises in their area. The formation of an industry advisory board at each higher education institution may require defining the duties and responsibilities, and providing guidelines on the composition of members, frequency of meetings, reporting, and related matters. Nationally, an annual consultative forum may be required, where government policymakers, employers, and educators discuss policies and program design to respond to trends in the labor market. In this context, the government could encourage the continuation and expansion of a valuable practice at some higher education institutions—including in the curriculum on-the-job training opportunities in industries—since the IEM found that employers first had to train their newly recruited graduates for 3–12 months, although the graduates are highly trainable.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

There is ongoing development of an integrated monitoring and evaluation system backed up by a management information system at the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) that is linked to individual higher education institutions. An annual tracer study consolidated from standardized tracer studies conducted or commissioned by individual HEIs would be useful to obtain meaningful impact assessments and determine improvement needs to sustain not only this project but also other initiatives at the DGHE.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This mechanism is found to be effective which has been adopted by other development partners, and national and local governments. What made it more laudable as a mechanism for higher education institutions was the added feature that bidders within a region compete only among themselves rather than at large, thereby ensuring geographic representation of assisted higher education institutions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

. This was based on the performance of the private higher education institutions. However, outcomes would be maximized if the components of assistance have mutually reinforcing or synergistic effects. Providing at least a minimum scale of assistance to fewer beneficiaries produces better results than spreading the resources thinly among more beneficiaries.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

The quality of education and training at the higher education institutions varies widely; it is better in the major cities, as indicated by the number and accreditation levels of the study programs. The project supported the strengthening of the Board of National Accreditation for Higher Education and the establishment of quality assurance units to ensure the quality of the study programs. However, standards and quality per study program varies per region. This complementing component may standardize the quality of graduates with licensure exam.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Prior to project implementation, management of the HEIs is still largely centralized when it comes to decisions on opening or closing of study programs, curriculum structure, hiring and firing of personnel, use of nonbudget revenue, etc. This constrains the initiative and flexibility of higher education institutions to respond to changing conditions.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

Moves to engage in twinning arrangements and credit transfers, and to take part in international accreditation of study programs or international certification of lecturers are also some practices that have started.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia

This would include assistance to improve performance in the Test of English as a Foreign Language—not only for future dealings or links with foreign universities and polytechnics, but also as a predeparture intervention for those going abroad, whether for an overseas degree fellowship or for work. The lack of English proficiency is a problem encountered by lecturers when doing postgraduate degrees abroad, and also by new graduates who are looking for a job in the main cities of Indonesia and abroad.

Project Cycle Stage:
Country: Indonesia
Independent Evaluation, ADB
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