By implementing market-oriented reforms, Viet Nam achieved robust economic growth over an extended period. As a result, the country advanced from a narrow inward-looking economy to a rapidly growing lower-middle-income economy. In 2011, when the project was designed, it was entering a new phase in which past gains were to be consolidated and new challenges were to be addressed.
A380 highway, the main route between northwestern and southeastern Uzbekistan, is a regionally important road. Prior to the program, the condition of its pavement had deteriorated because of deferred maintenance and traffic increase.
Uzbekistan has been one of the most energy- and carbon-intensive countries in the world, with footprints on both over six times the global average in 2011. To address the situation, the government called for drastic increases in energy efficiency and the development and use of renewable energy.
Urban development for economic growth was a universal strategy of the government of India under its 10th Five-Year Plan (FYP), 2002−2007, and 11th FYP, 2007−2012. The strategy was spearheaded by urban development schemes such as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission and its subcomponent, the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns.
As it marked the return of international financers to hydropower following the World Commission on Dams report in 2000, the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project received unprecedented global scrutiny. In response, environmental and social impacts and revenue potentials were equally considered during project preparation, which comprised a lengthy, iterative, and consultative process, beginning wit