During the first decade after the country regained independence in 1991, the quality and efficiency of water supply and sanitation services (WSS) in Azerbaijan declined because of poor management and inadequate investment.
As in many other provinces of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Shanxi's rapid urbanization has fueled a rising demand for housing and urban infrastructure. Strong economic growth, higher incomes, and the privatization of housing has likewise driven an increasing demand for district heating that, because of the abundance of coal, has relied primarily on the burning of this fossil fuel.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has made significant progress in adopting market-based reforms, with private sector development as the key engine of growth. Nevertheless, growth has occurred largely from natural resource exploitation and remittances-backed private consumption.