Because of lack of job opportunities in the rural areas and prolonged conflict, Nepal experienced rapid urbanization from internal migration. Rapid urbanization resulted in inadequate urban infrastructure and services, including intermittent drinking water supply, poor water quality, and poor sanitation.
In its state programs on poverty reduction and sustainable development for 2008–2015 and the socioeconomic development of the country’s regions for 2009–2013, the government of Azerbaijan committed to improving access to basic services.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the quality and efficiency of water supply and sanitation (WSS) in Azerbaijan deteriorated because of poor management, ageing infrastructure, and inadequate investment.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved the Road Network Improvement and Maintenance Project II for a loan of $126 million in November 2003 to help the government of Bangladesh achieve economic growth and poverty reduction.
Samoa’s narrow economy and limited resources create a difficult environment for business, and make the country highly vulnerable to global economic shocks. Frequent natural calamities exacerbate this vulnerability, as demonstrated by the cascade of negative impacts on the country’s economy by the global financial crisis in 2008, a tsunami in 2009, and Tropical Cyclone Evan in 2012.