Sindh is the second most populous province of Pakistan. In 2006, nearly half of its 38 million people lived in the urban areas. Poor quality, inadequate, and unreliable urban services and increasing urban poverty were key challenges, particularly in the secondary cities of Sindh facing rapid population growth.
Jiaozhou is a county-level city under the administration of Qingdao Municipality on the northwest coast of Jiaozhou Bay in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the city began in the early 2000s.
During project preparation, Sri Lanka’s power sector was struggling to meet the demand for a reliable and affordable supply of electricity and improvements to the electricity transmission and distribution networks were much needed.
By 2012, the Indonesian economy had recovered from the 2008 global financial crisis, with gross domestic product (GDP) growth above 6%, the debt-to-GDP ratio declining, the fiscal deficit below 2% of GDP, and the primary balance in surplus. Inflation was low in comparison to previous periods and the current account was in surplus.